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THE PURIM MEAL ON FRIDAY
When Purim (the 14th of Adar, or the 15th for those who celebrate Shushan Purim) occurs on Friday, many opinions hold that one should preferably have one’s Seudat Purim (Purim festive meal) in the morning1.
However, many opinions allow, and even encourage, beginning the meal later, and even continuing it through the advent of the Shabbat2. This arrangement has the important advantage of easing the stress of this extremely busy day, thus likely contributing both to the joy of Purim as well as to the enjoyment of Shabbat (two gains which are quite significant halachically). In such a situation one should daven Mincha (pray the afternoon service) before beginning the meal3, and make sure not to overeat during the pre-Shabbat section of the meal, so as to allow room for eating what will be considered the Shabbat meal Friday evening4. Anywhere from Plag Mincha (an hour and fifteen minutes of sha’ot zemaniot, which on Purim is usually close to a standard 75 minute period, before evening) until sunset, one should decide (and ideally verbalize) that one is accepting Shabbat5, and then not eat any more until the recitation of Kiddush6. (Whoever will light the Shabbat candles must do so before she/he accepts the Shabbat upon her/himself7). One may immediately recite the Friday night Kiddush over a cup of wine (or grape juice), but one should delete the Borei Pri HaGefen blessing (assuming one has already recited this blessing during the Purim meal)8. One should then bring out two Challot (bread loaves), and hand out pieces to the meal’s participants9. The blessing of Hamotzee is also deleted (assuming it was recited for the Purim meal)10. When one recites Birkat HaMazon (Grace after Meals), one should include the Shabbat addition of “Retzai”, but not the Purim addition of “Al HaNissim”11. (It should be noted that in Yerushalayim, where Shushan Purim is observed, Al HaNissim is recited specifically on Shabbat, but not on Friday12).
One should be careful not to forget Ma’ariv (the evening prayers), either during or after the meal13. Efforts should be made to coordinate one's schedule so as not to sacrifice Tfilla BiTzibbur (praying the Friday evening services with a quorum of ten adult males).
1 Sefer HaMinhagim of Rav Yitzchak Isaac Tirna (page 36), Darchai Moshe Orach Chaim 695,4, Rama on Shulchan Aruch 695,2, Matai Moshe (Purim 1011), Mishna Berura 249,13, Aruch HaShulchan 249,7, Shmirat Shabbat K'Hilchatah 42,27, Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach zt"l (in Minhagei Eretz Yisrael, of Rav Gellis, p411). Also see Leket Yosher p156.
[Some feel the meal should always take place in the morning, see Trumat HaDeshen, end of 110, brought in Darchei Moshe 695,4; Ma'aseh Rav 248, Mishna Berura 695,9 in the name of the Eliya Rabbah from the Shela.]
For reasons for this preference see Rashba Gittin 38b, cited by Magen Avraham 249,4 and Mishna Berura 249,10, Rambam hilchot Shabbat 30,4 brought in Shulchan Aruch 249,2, Sefer HaMinhagim (ibid.), Be'ur Halach 249,2 dibbur hamatchil Mipnei.
2 Meiri Ketubot 7b, Minhagei Eretz Yisrael 35,18 (page 209) in the name of Nahar Mitzrayim, Maharikash in Erech Lechem 695,1. Also see Orchot Chayim (Purim 37).
3 Rama 232,2, also see Mishna Berura,30.
4 Ateret Zekainim 249,2,2 and Aruch HaShulchan 249,7. Also see Be'ur Halacha 249,2 dibbur hamatchil Mutar and Mishna Berura 529,8.
5 Rama 261,2. [Also see the Rama 261,1, with Be'ur Halacha dibbur hamatchil Sha'ah Oh Shtayim, and 263,4 dibbur hamatchil Kodem, as well as Shmirat Shabbat Kehilchatah 43,66.]
6 Mechaber 271,4 and Mishna Berura 11.
7 See Ketzot HaShulchan vol. 3 in Badei HaShulchan 74,17.
8 Shulchan Aruch 271,4.
9 Aruch HaShulchan 271,13.
10 Bach 271,6, Taz 271,4, Mishna Berura 271,18 and Kaf HaChayim 271,29, unlike what seems to be the opinion of the Mechaber 271,4 and the Aruch HaShulchan 271,14 and 271,18.
11 Chayei Adam 155,32 and Mishna Berura 695,15, unlike the Meiri Ketubot 7b, Nahar Mitzrayim (in Minhagei Eretz Yisrael ibid.) and Pri Megadim (695 M.Z. 3 and A.A. 9).
12 Mishna Berura 688,17 based on Beit Yosef.
13 Taz 271,4, Magen Avraham 271,5 and Mishna Brura 271,11.
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