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Shabbat Pesach 5782

Ask the Rabbi: Mistakes in Kiddush of Yom Tov that Falls on Shabbat

Rav Daniel Mann

Question: I sometimes get confused in the Kiddush of Yom Tov that falls on Shabbat. What does one do if he did not say all of the correct elements?

 

Answer: There are too many permutations to touch all of them, but we will try to address the main ones, with a focus on likely mistakes. Most of the relevant sources discuss the similar combinations in davening, but for the most part, the applications in both cases are the same (Mishna Berura 287:2).

If one totally left out either Shabbat (e.g., by missing all the words in parentheses in the siddur/bentcher) or Yom Tov (e.g., by opening up to Kiddush of Shabbat), one is not yotzei (Shemirat Shabbat K’hilchata 47:41). The question is if he mentioned each at some but not all points. It is necessary to relate to the correct day(s) in the main body of the beracha, and if he left it out, it is not enough if he recited the right thing in the beracha’s ending (see Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chayim 487:3).

If one says “… vatiten lanu … et yom haShabbat hazeh,” that is enough even if he forgot the other mentions (and obviously if he left out “b’ahava"). It is less clear if he mentioned Shabbat only in the last words before the end beracha, as that might be considered part of the end and not the main body of the beracha (see Mishna Berura 487:13). Regarding the Yom Tov element, “… vatiten lanu … et yom…" is even more important, as one must mention the specific holiday (Mishna Berura 487:11; Shemirat Shabbat K’hilchata 47:42), and it is mentioned only once during Kiddush.

The end of the beracha is very important, and if one recites on a regular Yom Tov the ending of Shabbat or vice versa, he is not yotzei (see Shulchan Aruch, OC 487:1). The matter is less clear on Yom Tov that falls on Shabbat. If he leaves out one element, the beracha could still be significant because he correctly addressed one element. While the missing element is crucial, perhaps it is enough that it was mentioned in the midst of the beracha. The Knesset Hagedola (to Tur, OC 487) says that if one mentioned Shabbat in the middle but not at the end on Shabbat/Yom Tov, he does not need to repeat Shemoneh Esrei. The Pri Chadash (OC 487:1) presumes that the Knesset Hagedola’s basis is the halacha (Shulchan Aruch, OC 268:4) that if one davened a weekday Shemoneh Esrei on Shabbat and mentioned Shabbat in its midst, without a separate Shabbat beracha, he is yotzei. However, the Pri Chadash rejects the proof based on the fact that on a certain level, a full Shemoneh Esrei on Shabbat could have been appropriate, whereas a seven-beracha amida on Shabbat and Yom Tov needs to be done with an accurate middle beracha. We assume like the Pri Chadash, including in regard to Kiddush (Shemirat Shabbat K’hilchata ibid. 41). If he did not speak extraneous things, he would not have to repeat Borei Pri Hagafen (HaSeder He’aruch 52:7). If he repeated the beracha and the second time mentioned only Shabbat and not Yom Tov, he is likely yotzei since both elements were ultimately recited (see Igrot Moshe, OC IV, 70:14).

If one mentioned Shabbat at the end and not Yom Tov, the situation is better, based on the following source. The gemara (Beitza 17a) cites three opinions of Tannaim regarding what the proper break-up of berachot is for the amida of Shabbat/Yom Tov. Beit Hillel says that the beracha ends with mention of only Shabbat, whereas Yom Tov is mentioned only in the middle. We pasken like Rebbe, who says that the end beracha mentions both Shabbat and Yom Tov. However, many presume that Rebbe only came to add on Yom Tov as a lechatchila, whereas if one mentions Yom Tov in the middle and ends with only Shabbat, Rebbe agrees that he is yotzei (Be’ur Halacha to OC 487:1). The Be’ur Halacha points out that the Yerushalmi’s version of Rebbe is like Beit Hillel (the end beracha need not mention Yom Tov ), and the discrepancy is more palatable if Rebbe agrees b’di’eved. Thus, regarding practical halacha, mention of the specific Yom Tov in the midst of the beracha is sufficient b’di’eved (Shemirat Shabbat K’hilchata ibid.).

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