Shabbat Parashat Pinchas| 5770
Hemdat HaDaf Hayomi: The Mussaf of Rosh Chodesh on Rosh Hashana (2a)Rav Ofer Livnat
Tamuz 15-21, Makot 23- Shevuot 6
This week in the Daf Hayomi we begin learning Masechet Shevuot. One of the issues dealt with in the Mishna at the beginning of the Masechet is the additional sacrifices offered on Rosh Chodesh and the holidays. As part of the Mussaf, the additional sacrifices offered on special days, a Korban Chatat is offered to atone for Am Yisrael. The Mishna quotes a disagreement between the Tanaim as to which sins the Korban Chatat atones for. The Rambam (commentary to the Mishna Shevuot 1, 4) writes that there is no practical ramification to this disagreement. However, the Pnei Yehoshua (Shevuot 2a, Rosh Hashana 8b) raises a possible ramification, as we will explain.
The Tosafot (Rosh Hashana 8b) quote a disagreement between Rabbeinu Meshulam and Rabbeinu Tam regarding the Korban Chatat of Rosh Chodesh on Rosh Hashana. After listing the additional sacrifices of Rosh Hashana, the Torah states that these sacrifices are "in addition to the Olah of Rosh Chodesh" (Bamidbar 29, 6, in this weeks Parsha). Rabbeinu Meshulam inferred from the fact that the Torah only mentions the Olah of Rosh Chodesh and not the Chatat, that on Rosh Hashana, even though it is also Rosh Chodesh, the Korban Chatat of Rosh Chodesh is not offered. Rabbeinu Tam disagreed and brought proofs that the Korban Chatat of Rosh Chodesh is sacrificed on Rosh Hashana.
After Rabbeinu Tam's response, Rabbeinu Meshulam clarified that he did not mean that this sacrifice is not offered in the Beit Hamikdash, but rather that we do not mention it in the Mussaf davening of Rosh Hashana, just like the Torah did not mention it explicitly. Rabbeinu Tam disagreed with this as well and instituted that the Korban Chatat should be mentioned in the davening by saying "ushnei seirim lechaper"- which refers to the Chatat of Rosh Hashana and the Chatat of Rosh Chodesh.
The Pnei Yehoshua writes that it is possible that this disagreement depends on the disagreement between the Tanaim in the beginning of Masechet Shevuot. According to some of the Tanaim, the Korban Chatat of Rosh Chodesh atones for the same sins as the Korban Chatat of Rosh Hashana, while according to other Tanaim they atone for different sins. Thus, claims the Pnei Yehoshua, according to the opinion that they atone for the same sins, there is no need to sacrifice on Rosh Hashana both the Korban Chatat of Rosh Chodesh and the Korban Chatat of Rosh Hashana. However, according to the opinion that they atone for different sins, both should be sacrificed.
Many Achronim reject this idea of the Pnei Yehoshua (see Cheshek Shlomo), and, as mentioned, Rabbeinu Meshulam himself explained that this was not his intent. The Remma (Orach Chaim 591, 2) writes that the custom in Ashkenaz is to say "ushnei seirim lechaper"- like the opinion of Rabbeinu Tam.
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In memory of
The Rishon Letzion
Rav Mordechai Eliyahu ztvk”l
This week’s Hemdat Yamim is dedicated in loving memory of
Hemdat Yamim is endowed by
Dedicated in memory of
Harav David and Bina
on the occasion of her yahrzeit, 24 Tammuz